Tin is an element of the 14th group of the periodic table of chemical elements (according to the outdated classification - an element of the main subgroup of group IV), the fifth period, with atomic number 50. It belongs to the group of light metals.
Under normal conditions a simple substance, tin, is a ductile, malleable and low-melting shiny metal of a silvery-white color. Tin forms two allotropic modifications: below 13.2 ° C stable α-tin (gray tin) with a diamond-type cubic lattice, above 13.2 ° C stable β-tin (white tin) with tetragonal crystal lattice
- Tin is mainly used as a safe, non-toxic, corrosion-resistant coating in pure form or in alloys with other metals. The main industrial uses of tin are in tinplate (tinned iron) for food packaging, in solders for electronics, in house piping, in bearing alloys, and in coatings of tin and its alloys. The most important alloy of tin is bronze (with copper). Another famous alloy, pewter, is used to make tableware. For these purposes, about 33% of the total mined tin is consumed. Up to 60% of the tin produced is used in the form of alloys with copper, copper and zinc, copper and antimony (bearing alloy, or babbit), with zinc (packaging foil) and in the form of tin-lead and tin-zinc solders. Recently, there has been a revival of interest in the use of metal, since it is the most "environmentally friendly" among heavy non-ferrous metals. Used to create superconducting wires based on the intermetallic compound Nb3Sn. ;
Tin disulfide SnS2 is used in the composition of paints imitating gilding ("gold leaf"). Artificial tin radionuclide 119mSn is a source of gamma radiation in Mössbauer spectroscopy.
- Intermetallic compounds of tin and zirconium have high melting temperatures (up to 2000 ° C) and resistance to oxidation when heated in air and have a number of applications.
- Tin is the most important alloying component in the production of structural titanium alloys.
- Tin dioxide is a very effective abrasive material used in "finishing "Optical glass surfaces.
- A mixture of tin salts - the" yellow composition "- was previously used as a dye for wool.
- Tin is also used in chemical current sources as an anode material, for example: manganese-tin element, oxide-mercury-tin element. The use of tin in a lead-tin battery is promising; so, for example, at equal voltage, in comparison with a lead battery, a lead-tin battery has 2.5 times more capacity and 5 times more energy density per unit volume, its internal resistance is much lower.
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