Acid is nitric 2808000000
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In its pure form, this substance is a liquid that has no light, but has a pungent odor. Highly concentrated nitric acid emits a poisonous gas, so you need to be extremely careful when handling it. In addition, it interacts with many organic substances. As a rule, it is used for the manufacture of fertilizers, nitrate and sulphate salts.
Scope of nitric acid
As already mentioned, this chemical is toxic and, accordingly, dangerous therefore, it must be handled with the utmost care. When handled properly, nitric acid becomes a useful ingredient. It is used in many industries and has become truly indispensable.
- Nitric acid in the chemical industry . Most often, this chemical is used in the manufacture of saltpeter, mineral fertilizers and sulfate salts. Nitric acid in low concentration becomes an excellent source of nitrogen for many plants, therefore fertilizers made with its participation significantly increase yields. Lack of nitrogen is one of the main problems in agriculture, and it is nitric acid that helps to combat it. Under natural conditions, plants receive nitrogen from the anions and cations contained in the soil. If these elements are not enough in the soil, without fertilization, a good harvest will remain just a dream.
- Nitric acid in military equipment . Explosives are made with the participation of nitric acid. At the beginning of the 19th century, scientists drew attention to the fact that with a certain treatment of certain combustible substances with nitric acid, compounds with excellent explosive properties arise. On the basis of these observations, studies began, which subsequently made it possible to create the most widely used nitroglycerin. (It should be noted that when conducting experiments with the participation of other substances, scientists also synthesized trinitrobenzene, tetranitroaniline, pyroxylin, nitronaphthalene, nitronaphthalene and nitrostarch.)
Properties and features
The density of nitric acid is 1.52 grams per cm 3 . At a temperature of 84 degrees, the substance boils, and if it is cooled to -41 В° C, it hardens and turns into a colorless crystal. Basically, in practice, a 65-70 percent composition is used. The maximum mass of nitric acid is 1.4 grams / cm 3 . There is also nitric acid with a concentration of up to 97 and even 99%, however, it is extremely rare.
When nitric acid is stored in glassware, a brown coating appears on the walls of the container. It is formed by the evaporation of toxic gas. If inhaled, it can seriously affect your health. Prolonged contact of nitric acid with the skin leaves characteristic yellow spots, which disappear only after a few days. The substance breaks down proteins, and yellowing indicates sulfur production. In fact, the marks left on the skin after interaction with nitric acid are chemical burns.
The result of careless handling of nitric acid is unlikely to be more serious than the consequences of an oversight when working with H2SO4 (sulfuric acid), but you shouldn't forget about safety. To avoid health problems, when using nitric acid, care must be taken to protect the respiratory tract and prevent the chemical from getting on the skin. For this, there are such simple tools as rubber gloves and a gas mask. If nitric acid is accidentally splashed, it must be wiped off with plenty of water, and for absolute safety it is recommended to moisten it with a soda solution.
Nitric acid. Production and history
This chemical was first produced in Russia in 1916. Then scientists were able to extract nitric acid from ammonia obtained by coke-chemical method. 12 years later, in 1928, chemists mastered a new method of producing nitric acid. The new chemical process, which resulted in the production of pure nitric acid, implied the use of synthetic ammonia.
According to the degree of concentration of the acid produced, production can be of two types - strong and weak. The second method is most often used and it takes place in three stages:
- Conversion of ammonia to obtain nitric oxide;
- Conversion of the resulting nitric oxide to dioxide;
- Removal of nitrogen oxides with water. ;
There is also a scheme for producing nitric acid, called "AK-72". It is based on a closed cycle of power engineering effects. In the process of manufacturing nitric acid according to the AK-72 scheme, a two-stage conversion of ammonia and cooling of the generated nitrous gases are involved. The final stage is invariably the absorption of oxides. Finished products are produced with a concentration of 60%. The first unit using this principle was manufactured in 1976.
Interaction of nitric acid with other chemicals
This chemical is one of the most powerful acids ... It is characterized by all reactions in which other acids are involved. Its ability to oxidize for more than a dozen years has forced scientists to conduct experiments in search of new and new industries for its application. The point of oxidation of various substances and materials with nitric acid is the effect that the ions contained in the chemical create. In the structure of such an ion, there is a nitrogen atom in a high oxidation state. Depending on the conditions of the oxidation process (temperature, structure of the reducing agent and the initial concentration of the acid), this atom is capable of accepting from one to eight electrons. Nitric acid interacts with many elements of the periodic table, oxidizing or dissolving them. In this case, the outcome of the reaction depends on the chemical properties of the second substance.
- Rocket technology . In the open air, pure nitric acid smokes and turns red. The technical properties of this chemical make it not only dangerous, but also useful. Highly concentrated nitric acid solution is used in the production of rocket fuel. In the process of making fuels, nitric acid acts as a liquid oxidizing agent.
- Nitric acid and photography . In the field of photography, nitric acid is used to acidify tinting solutions.
- Metallurgy . Concentrated nitric acid dissolves not only organic compounds. Metallurgists use it to dissolve certain metals.
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