Xylene is a colorless liquid with a characteristic benzene odor. Slightly soluble in water (less than 0.015%), well soluble in organic solvents such as ethanol, diethyl ether, acetone, chloroform, benzene. Shows the properties of typical aromatic hydrocarbons, is easily alkylated, chlorinated, sulfonated and nitrated. It is a petroleum product, a mixture of three isomers of xylene and ethylbenzene. There are three isomers of xylene: ortho-, meta- and para-xylene (o-Xylene, m-Xylene and p-Xylene).
Density: o-Xylene 0.8802 g / cm³ , m-Xylene 0.8642 g / cm³, p-Xylene 0.8611 g / cm³; Melting point: o-Xylene -25.2 ° C, m-Xylene -47.8 ° C, p-Xylene 13.26 ° C; Boiling point: o-Xylene 144.4 ° C, m-Xylene 139.1 ° C, p-Xylene 138.3 ° C. Chemical formula: C6H4 (CH3) 2.
For the synthesis of xylenes, the processes of catalytic reforming of gasoline and the pyrolysis of hydrotreated gasoline are used. To isolate o-xylene from the resulting mixture of isomers, clear rectification is used. In the industry, xylenes are produced by coking coal or by catalytic reforming of straight-run gasoline.
Xylene is intended for the isolation of xylene isomers and use as solvents for paints and varnishes. Of the three xylene isomers, o-xylene has the best dissolving power. Xylene is a part of mixed solvents 649, 650, R-5, R-12, RS-2, RKB-1, etc., used to dissolve epoxy, vinyl, acrylic, organosilicon polymers, nitrocellulose, chlorinated rubber.
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